Driving interoperability, ecosystem improvement, and future innovation

In the present day, we take it without any consideration that our wi-fi units and functions simply work out of the field —smartphones can join, make calls, and obtain and ship information wherever on the earth; laptops can seamlessly hook up with any Wi-Fi entry level and Bluetooth peripheral; and the video recorded on one gadget may be performed again completely on some other gadget. It’s not magic. It’s because of world expertise requirements that not solely energy a variety of methods and units but additionally deliver many advantages to the broader expertise ecosystem.

As the top of the requirements group at Qualcomm Applied sciences, I’ve been concerned with creating standardized applied sciences for about 30 years. In the present day, my staff participates in about 200 world requirements and {industry} organizations, that are chargeable for standardizing a variety of applied sciences adopted in digital methods and units. On this weblog put up, I’ll clarify the significance of expertise requirements and spotlight a couple of focus areas of ours, specifically mobile, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and video coding.

The Worth of Requirements

International expertise requirements play a vital function on the earth of expertise. For the wi-fi communications {industry}, they’re the inspiration of a clear aggressive ecosystem open for everybody and supply a steady expertise evolution roadmap. Standardization is a key step in bringing new interoperable applied sciences to the mass business market, creating vital worth throughout the complete expertise ecosystem. Let me clarify why.

Expertise requirements:

  • Guarantee system interoperability whereas enabling product differentiation.
  • Create new markets and develop addressable markets of current merchandise and expertise.
  • Enable for higher value effectivity by economies of scale and multi-vendor sourcing.
  • Scale back market threat, particularly in areas that require giant investments (e.g., mobile infrastructure, silicon chip designs).
  • Enhance reliability and turn into a automobile to handle regulatory necessities.
  • Proceed to reinforce the expertise by motivating participation, collaboration and competitors from a various set of firms, creating the perfect answer doable.

However why would any firm try to be the chief in requirements? Properly, right here at Qualcomm Applied sciences, we see three distinct benefits for requirements management:

  • First, it permits us to ship higher merchandise whereas decreasing time-to-market. For example, communications requirements are very complicated in nature; thus, management in designing expertise requirements goes hand in hand with management in product improvement.
  • Second, it provides us the chance to create and license beneficial mental property (IP). When innovations are contributed to requirements, they turn into accessible to everybody within the ecosystem. A stable IP framework can make it possible for inventors are adequately incentivized to put money into R&D that generates beneficial innovations.
  • Third, it allows us to drive the expertise ahead with new functionalities and efficiencies, fostering wholesome progress for the general market that advantages the broader ecosystem.

Now that we’ve established that requirements deliver clear advantages for customers, system distributors, and inventors, let me present a fast overview to some requirements which might be necessary to the wi-fi {industry} and spotlight a few of our key contributions.

Many standardized elements, interfaces, and software program in wi-fi units, e.g., smartphone

Mobile — 3GPP (3rd Technology Partnership Mission)

Mobile communication has revolutionized the best way we reside, work, and play, and Qualcomm has been on the forefront of pioneering standardized cutting-edge applied sciences for the reason that improvement of CDMA for 2G. In the present day, 3GPP is the requirements physique that drives a lot of the evolution of mobile expertise., 3GPP has an open collaborative course of, which permits any firm to take part. Collaborating firms submit their technological proposals that are then mentioned, adopted, rejected, and modified by 3GPP contributors by a consensus-based course of. By way of this aggressive course of, involving among the greatest minds within the communications {industry}, and which to the informal observer should appear chaotic, comes out the perfect technical options which type the bottom expertise for the trillion-dollar mobile {industry}. Qualcomm Applied sciences has a protracted historical past of success in submitting our expertise innovations into 3GPP and its predecessors. We’ve got made vital contributions to the main normal releases of 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G.

For instance, Qualcomm Applied sciences submitted its CDMA expertise within the early Nineties which turned the idea for one of many main 2G requirements, and the idea for all 3G requirements. Enhancements in that expertise led to many inventions, together with very elementary strategies that permitted excessive charge information communications and the well-known service aggregation that additional elevated the info charge. We had been additionally a key chief within the improvement of the essential ideas round OFDM in 4G. Later, we led the ecosystem to standardize LTE in unlicensed spectrum (LTE-U & LAA), which underpinned the global success of Gigabit LTE and the next standardization of 5G NR in unlicensed spectrum (i.e., NR-U). We additionally led within the improvement device-to-device communications, which led to ProSe (Proximity Companies) and later to direct communications between vehicles (C-V2X). With 5G, we led the acceleration of NSA mode in 5G NR Release 15, in addition to contributed key technology inventions to both Release 15 and 16, which established a solid 5G technology foundation and began the 5G expansion into new industries.

To study extra about how 3GPP works and one of the best ways to gauge mobile requirements management (spoiler alert: we firmly imagine in quality over quantity), please try this weblog sequence by considered one of my staff members, Lorenzo Casaccia.

Main the 5G expertise evolution — our key innovations in 3GPP Launch 15 and 16

Wi-Fi — IEEE 802.11 Working Teams and WFA (Wi-Fi Alliance)

One other wi-fi expertise that we’re all conversant in is Wi-Fi, which offers native broadband entry for a variety of units. The standardization and promotion of Wi-Fi applied sciences are pushed by two {industry} organizations: IEEE 802.11 Working Group and the Wi-Fi Alliance. The IEEE 802.11 Working Group is chargeable for creating and sustaining the worldwide MAC/PHY requirements, whereas the Wi-Fi Alliance manages interoperability take a look at applications, conducts regulatory advocacy, and drives advertising and marketing actions.

There are actually six main business normal releases of Wi-Fi, and at present, we’re seeing the worldwide proliferation of Wi-Fi 6, primarily based upon the IEEE 802.11ax normal. The IEEE 802.11 Working Group is actively engaged on 802.11be, which would be the subsequent era, known as Wi-Fi 7. Qualcomm Applied sciences workers maintain key management positions in 802.11 (802.11 Vice Chair and 802.11be Chair) and the Wi-Fi Alliance (Board of Administrators). Over time, we now have made vital contributions to all main updates of Wi-Fi, that are summarized within the determine beneath.

A wealthy historical past of main key Wi-Fi improvements — superior R&D, standardization, commercialization

Bluetooth — Bluetooth SIG (Particular Curiosity Group)

Bluetooth is one other complementary wi-fi expertise that helps a broad set of non-public space networking use instances, together with audio streaming, information switch, and placement providers. The Bluetooth SIG is the {industry} group that’s chargeable for standardizing Bluetooth applied sciences, qualifying merchandise, and selling its model. At present, there are ~15 members which might be presently actively contributing to the Core Working Group to evolve Bluetooth specs. Qualcomm Applied sciences has taken a acknowledged management function since 2000. Teams that Qualcomm Applied sciences workers presently chair embody the BTI committee and the essential Core and Generic Audio working teams. Qualcomm Applied sciences workers have obtained a number of awards over time recognizing their (and Qualcomm Applied sciences’) contributions to Bluetooth. Over the a number of generations and releases of Bluetooth requirements, we now have pioneered defining among the applied sciences which might be highlighted beneath.

Our key Bluetooth expertise improvements over the previous 20 years

Video — MPEG (Movement Image Skilled Group) and VCEG (Video Coding Consultants Group)

Video expertise revolutionized how we create and devour media. It’s a stark distinction to have a look at the low-resolution black-and-white TV video of the previous versus at present’s high-resolution high-dynamic-range video streaming applied sciences. Video coding expertise developments proceed the march of enhanced video high quality utilizing fewer bits, which has led to broad video adoption throughout a variety of interoperable units and providers. Actually, it’s anticipated that 82% of Web site visitors shall be video by 2022 (supply: Cisco Annual Web Report, 2018–2023).

International video requirements are developed by MPEG, and its accomplice group VCEG. Just like different normal organizations, professional working teams deal with expertise discussions, make choices on what to incorporate within the requirements, and supply instruments to make sure product interoperability. The common cadence of technical development in video codec requirements has resulted in an enormous discount in file measurement — roughly an element of two for each era of video codec. Qualcomm Applied sciences has been a significant contributor to a number of video codec requirements, starting with the HEVC (Excessive Effectivity Video Coding), often known as H.265 that was accomplished in 2013, by the 2 most up-to-date video requirements, VVC (Versatile Video Coding), which reached FDIS (Remaining Draft Worldwide Customary) standing in July 2020 and EVC (Important Video Coding) , which reached the identical standing in April 2020. Qualcomm Applied sciences has a wealthy heritage of main video innovation, offering key video requirements contributions throughout video applied sciences which might be highlighted within the picture beneath.

Our key video expertise improvements span throughout video coding, streaming, and environment friendly implementation

For instance, with the current completion of VVC, Qualcomm Applied sciences is proud to have been the preliminary or a predominant contributor to video coding instruments that present 80% of VVC’s charge discount as in comparison with HEVC. As well as, our improvements contribute to VVC instruments that cut back compute complexity for extra environment friendly processing. As customers demand extra immersive experiences, this next-gen video expertise will proceed to evolve to help rising data-intensive video providers and functions.

Our contributions to requirements drive the long run for industries

To foster future improvements, we now have been and proceed to be on the forefront of driving a broad set of expertise requirements and guaranteeing their success within the world market. Our contributions may be distilled into three key areas:

  • Expertise management: we’re driving cutting-edge R&D and taking daring bets to handle elementary challenges and ship industry-changing breakthroughs.
  • Requirements management: we’re taking management positions in requirements and {industry} organizations to set guiding instructions and do what’s proper to maneuver the {industry} ahead.
  • Ecosystem help: we’re supporting ecosystem improvement by larger membership ranges and shut collaboration with 80+ main universities on future analysis.

Be taught extra…

For extra detailed info on the important function of standardization, join my webinar on 9/29 and download this presentation. Additionally, make certain to enroll in our wireless technologies newsletter to remain updated as we transfer the ahead with tomorrow’s expertise improvements.